What Is Quantum Supremacy And How Quantum Computing Works |  Explained  | google | IBM  technogyyan.tech
Source: Internet

It is a term proposed in 2012 by John Preskill, professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology. It describes the point where quantum computers can do things that classical computers cannot. In Google’s case, researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara have claimed to have developed a processor that took 200 seconds to do a calculation that would have taken a classical computer 10,000 years. But what is a quantum computer? What difference would such a simulation make? Is that what Google has achieved? So, what good does that do? Quantum supremacy is a mile

What is quantum supremacy?

According to Dr. Sapan Sarkar, director of high-performance computing, informatics, and quantum at the Royal Bank of Scotland, a computer can only be as strong as its quantum computing hardware. “Qubits are still very fragile and can only exist for a limited time, so to reliably run quantum algorithms, you have to have the most robust quantum hardware,” he says. He adds that current cloud computing providers such as IBM are building the most robust hardware so that today’s quantum computers can work across multiple platforms. He says that one of the challenges is that even though it is easy to write an algorithm for a quantum computer, it is much harder to do it in the way the quantum computer wants it. “You have to use all the terminology the quantum computer understands,” he says.

What is a quantum computer?

Physical processes in nature tend to occur according to three laws: conservation of energy, conservation of information, and local realism. Because the laws of nature are so unchanging, they can be treated as basic laws that apply to all systems. It is this notion of classical physics that was common before we began to observe phenomena that deviated from them. If quantum physics holds true, it should make certain computations, including ones involving the atoms in atoms, seemingly impossible to execute using classical (i.e. what the world around us looks like) mathematics. How Quantum Computing Works Quantum computers are based on an idea called quantum bits or qubits. These qubits are the basic building blocks of a quantum computer.

What Is Quantum Supremacy And How Quantum Computing Works |  Explained  | google | IBM  technogyyan.tech
source: Internet

Why does quantum supremacy matter?

The question of whether quantum computing is in fact “good” or not comes down to whether quantum computing could be used for some form of unbreakable encrypted communications. At present, it is not clear whether quantum computing has the capabilities to deliver this kind of encryption. However, even if it cannot, quantum supremacy is still an important milestone. Google’s quantum processor is designed to work in a cold vacuum, which means that the electronics and the chip are completely isolated from each other and from the outside world. This helps create what is called an “ideal quantum circuit.

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Opening new avenues for computing

Scientists have known for some time that quantum computing was about to explode onto the scene. It’s already a key part of Google’s Big Data project and the team at Santa Barbara has demonstrated how this technique could be used to handle massive amounts of information on one device. However, it is not just Google that has been working on developing quantum computing. American company Lockheed Martin has developed a computer that can solve certain computational problems up to 100 billion times faster than traditional computers. There are fears that it could be used to crack some of the encryption currently used to protect sensitive data. But it’s also a far more powerful type of processor.

Shortening the time to solve problems

Google has just shown off a quantum processor which could solve a problem that would normally take a quantum computer 50 years to do. Google calls it a ‘quantum simulator’. There are a couple of problems here. First, Google is using a very high-speed classical computer to measure very small numbers of quantum bits, aka qubits, which is not what quantum computing is all about. Why is the Google demo so hard? The qubits are ‘self-performing, they can’t be ‘corrected’, so even the tiniest mistake can throw off the calculation. The researchers have designed the experiment with a very high-speed classical computer to measure very small numbers of quantum bits, aka qubits, which is not what quantum computing is all about. What would be the next steps?

What Is Quantum Supremacy And How Quantum Computing Works |  Explained  | google | IBM  technogyyan.tech
Source: Internet

Quantum supremacy is the next step in quantum computing

Supremacy is the point where a quantum computer can perform calculations that no classical computer can perform Theoretical physicist John Preskill Theoretical physicist John Preskill, a professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology, has suggested that the new calculations by Santa Barbara’s quantum computer are the “first example” of quantum supremacy, suggesting that a working quantum computer will eventually achieve “quantum supremacy”.“What I have argued is that quantum supremacy is the next step in quantum computing,” Prof Preskill said. Quantum supremacy is the next step in quantum computing Professor John Preskill However, it would still be some way off until quantum supremacy was achieved, Prof.

What is Google’s quantum supremacy?

It is a hardware exploit. It could be another level of architecture such as an accelerator, embedded chip, or a specialized microprocessor that can perform quantum computations. The 2,000x speed-up has a benchmark application of Google’s own Google Search service. That takes up most of the performance, with the remaining performance related to financial services and image recognition. Why should I care about it? Although quantum computing isn’t likely to replace GPU- or CPU-based computers anytime soon, it could be the killer tool for solving some of our more complex and knotty problems such as climate simulations, materials science, medicine, and nuclear fusion. John Preskill first proposed the term quantum supremacy in 2012, and it was rediscovered after Google’s announcement.

What is the difference between classical and quantum computing?

You might think this is a straightforward question but, if you want to start an interview with a senior technical person at a large company, who might not necessarily have any quantum computing experience themselves, you can expect to hear an answer involving many layers of context, often within the same answer. It’s not that there’s anything fundamentally different between quantum and classical computing; the difference lies in the interpretation of those different terms. You might expect a classical system to be described as a machine that performs a set of operations on data sets, a binary form. Quantum computers, by contrast, are described as “quantum-interpreted machines”. They are based on a fundamentally different branch of physics called quantum mechanics.

How quantum computing actually works

Well, it is nothing other than computing in a way that the physical world can’t do it. So, a light beam is quantum-effected and instead of being sent out in a straight line or bent in a plane, it’s bent around a fixed point as though the ‘ground’ is far away. The photons bounce off and on the ‘wall’ causing the computation to take place. There’s no, ‘enter data’ or ‘exit data’. It’s a physical process that doesn’t take place on a traditional computer. Now, how does a quantum computer replace your laptop or your smartphone? In a way that’s not obvious, it makes computers better. This is because a quantum computer doesn’t run on electricity. It runs on electricity as a possible input, but it doesn’t run on electricity as the output.

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Quantum computing and quantum computing are concepts born out of very deep mathematical theory. Concepts that would be highly complicated and boring to explain in layman terms. That is why I do not see a commercial scale commercial quantum computer being created in the next 20 years. Many research organizations are working on quantum technologies and some (such as IBM) have an interesting take on quantum computing and quantum supremacy. The question is: what is quantum supremacy and how does quantum computing work?

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